Online Information Centre for Stainless Steel in Construction
Design Guide 27, Structural Stainless Steel, provides guidance for the design of structural stainless steel. It is written for engineers experienced in the design of carbon steel structural components but not necessarily in the design of stainless steel structures, and is aligned with the design provisions in the 2010 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. It applies to the design of structural hot-rolled or welded open sections such as I-shaped members, channels, and equal-leg angles. It also applies to rectangular and round hollow structural sections (HSS). The guidance provided is applicable to austenitic, duplex and precipitation hardening stainless steel structural sections with thickness 1/8 in. (3 mm) and greater. Major topics covered are material behavior and selection, cross-section design, member design, connections, and fabrication. Design Examples are also included.
This resource provides information on the design, specification, manufacture and maintenance of stainless steel architectural components. The ‘Design and Technology’ section includes structural and performance information on stainless steel and reviews production and finishing techniques. The ‘Case Studies’ section provides numerous examples of the contemporary use of stainless steel in architecture. In each case the design criteria, finish, joining techniques, structural drawings and images for the stainless steel element are described and presented. The Appendices summarise the standards relating to stainless steel, the mechanical and physical properties the product range and the finish designation.
This resource lists the range of available stainless steel section shapes and sizes available in Germany. It also references delivery standards, edge design, finish, grades, Products covered include flat and round bars, rectangular, hexagonal and double-T profiles, flats, squares, angles, channels, T-profile, round tubes, square tubes and rectangular tubes and reinforcing steel. Also covered: masonry sections, facade profiles, window profiles, door frame, railing systems, stair rails, anchor rails. It includes as an annex the German Technical Approval Sonderdruck 862 - Allgemeine bauaufsichtliche Zulassung Z-30.3-6 vom. 5 Dezember 2003.
This resource is the second edition of an excel spreadsheet prepared by the BSSA specifying all the available stainless steel product forms in the UK. The section categories are: I-Beam Section, H Section, T-Profile (equal and unequal), Z-Profile, Angles (equal and unequal), Channels, Circular Hollow Section, Square Hollow Section, Rectangular Hollow Section, Cold Formed Hollow Section and Special Section.
This downloadable comprehensive stainless steel library includes a collection of over 280 pdfs and was developed for firms in the architecture, building and construction industry. The information is categorized based on six primary topic areas:
- Alloy Selection and Specification
- Structural Design
- Sustainability and Health.
Subfiles further categorize the information by topic. In addition to brochures, articles, and case studies, there are current specification and guideline and international finish supplier lists.
This resource is a guide aimed to provide engineers, architects and fabricators with the properties and capabilities of iron, carbon steel and stainless steel castings. Castings provide high strength, ductility and toughness, efficient production methods, excellent surface finish, and have good welding and machining characteristics. These properties allow savings on materials and minimise manufacturing costs. This guide explains the basic processes and techniques of castings and provides information for the designer on welding, surface finishes, tolerances and inspection and testing methods. It emphasises the importance of correct specification of the casting techniques and the appropriate level of quality. The procurement process is explained and illustrated with flowcharts. Appendices give examples of recent projects using structural castings, including 4 detailed case histories featuring main truss connections, glazing connections, beam to column connections and compression members in a bridge. Lists of sources of further information and the addresses of some UK foundries are also given.
This resource is a short article comparing the behaviour and mechanical properties of stainless steel and carbon steel. Both stress-strain graphs are presented illustrating how stainless steel has a less defined yield stress. A table also summarises tensile strength, Young’s Modulus and elongation for grades 1.4301, 1.4401, S275 and S355.
This resource is part 3 of the Structural Stainless Steel Design Manual. It provides commentary on the recommendations from part 1.
This resource is the second part of the Structural Stainless Steel Design Manual. It gives 13 stainless steel design examples that illustrate the application of the design rules in the Recommendations. The examples are various structures subject to combinations of axial compression, bending and fatigue loadings. The examples include a circular hollow section, welded I-beam, trapezoidal roof sheeting, welded hollow section, welded joint, bolted joint, plate girder with a class 4 cross section, cold formed channel, rectangular hollow section and lipped channel section. Both annealed and cold worked material are covered.
This resource is the first part of the structural stainless steel design manual. It covers material behavior, design of cold formed and welded members in tension and compression, connections and fire resistance. It is applicable to austenitic and duplex stainless steel grades. The appendices also cover the different grade designations, lateral-torsional buckling and deflection calculations. It is formulated in terms of limit state philosophy, in compliance with EN 1993-1 Parts 1-10, Design of steel structures.
This resource is an online design facility for cold-formed structural stainless steel. The software can be used for designing circular and rectangular hollow sections, equal angles and channels. The user first defines the mode of loading, section dimensions, member geometry and grade. The software then calculates section properties and member capacities in accordance with the Design Manual for Structural Stainless Steel. The fire resistance of the section is also calculated.
This resource is an online design facility for cold-formed structural stainless steel in accordance with UK design practice. The software can be used for designing circular and rectangular hollow sections, equal angles and channels. The user must define the mode of loading, section dimensions, member geometry and grade. The software then calculates section properties and member capacities in accordance with the Design Manual for Structural Stainless Steel.
This resource is a technical article authored by Nancy Baddoo (SCI) explaining the engineering techniques required to design stainless steel sections to EN 1993-1-4 (Eurocode 3). Firstly, different grades of structural stainless steel are introduced and the mechanical and physical characteristics of austenitic and duplex families briefly described. Secondly, the history of the European design standard is explained. Finally techniques to determine the classification and resistances of cross sections, resistances of compression members and flexural members and deflections are described.
EN 1993-1-4 gives supplementary provisions for the design of buildings and civil engineering works from stainless steel, extending the application of EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-3 (which cover structural design of hot-rolled and welded carbon steel sections and structural design of cold-formed light gauge carbon steel sections respectively). Austenitic grades 1.4301, 1.4401 and duplex grades1.4462 and 1.4362 are covered. Also covered are the low carbon grades and stabilized grades, e.g. 1.4541 and 1.4571.
This resource explains fire testing and fire rating of stainless steel components. Stainless steels do not have an intrinsic fire rating but all families (austenitic, duplex, ferritic) have inherent oxidation resistance and elevated temperature strength. Testing is done on specific grades under precise conditions according to BS 476 Parts 20, 21 (load bearing elements) and 22 (non load bearing elements). The results of fire test show that for load bearing applications stainless steel has better heat resistance than carbon steels, melting at 1375 degrees C and maintaining 55% of its ambient temperature 0.2% proof stress at 800 degrees C.
This resource provides engineers authoritative, practical guidance on designing, specifying and using stainless steel reinforcement. It is intended to help engineers to decide when and where stainless steel could or should be used as reinforcement.
This resource is a technical guide to designing stainless steel reinforced concrete. For suitable grades of stainless steel, information is given on the chemical composition and corrosion properties, particularly resistance to chloride attack and carbonation and mechanical properties (stress-strain relationship, heat resistance and fatigue). Guidance on handling, installation and welding stainless steel reinforcing bar is also given. The optimum concrete mix is also discussed with relation to preventing corrosion.
Cutting-edge international designers are increasingly turning to unique aesthetic and structural characteristics of stainless steel.
This resource is part of the design standard SABS 0162. It applies to the design, based on limit-states, of structural members of cold-formed stainless steels (austenitic and ferritic type 3CR12) sheet, strip or plate up to 25mm in thickness, intended for load carrying purposes in buildings. Supplementary standards can be used for applications other than buildings.
This resource provides the design criteria for the determination of strength of stainless steel members and connections for use in buildings and other statically loaded structures in the US. It includes the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method and the allowable stress design (ASD) method. Members can be cold formed to shape from annealed and cold rolled sheets, strips, plates or flat bar material. Austentic grades (201, 301, 304, 316 and ‘Nitronic 30’) are covered, in the annealed and cold rolled condition. Ferritic grades (409, 430, 439) are also covered in the annealed condition only.
The need for structures –typically bridges and piers – that last one hundred years or more with little or no maintenance rather than the much shorter design life used so far is now widely accepted as cost saving for the community. Stainless steel reinforcing bar in concrete is increasingly used as a straightforward and reliable way to resist corrosion and to provide the adequate service life. You will find either directly or through the references provided the answers to most the questions you may have regarding stainless steel reinforcing bar. The contents have been prepared by an international Task Force of industry experts.
- Gatehouse in The Hague, Netherlands
- Café in Berlin, Germany
- Pavilion in Zürich, Switzerland
- Opera house in Copenhagen, Denmark
- Bank building in Vienna, Austria
- Hotel restaurant in Zürich, Switzerland
- Museum in Paris, France
- Metro station in Paris, France
- Museum in Stift Klosterneuburg, Austria
- University in Paris, France - College extension in Cheltenham, England
- Café in Vienna, Austria
- Bank building in Lodi, Italy
- Museum in Augsburg, Germany
- Showroom in Milan, Italy
- Staircase in an exhibition room in Bologna, Italy
This resource is an information sheet about the design of stainless steel cold formed angles used to support the outer leaf of masonry cladding in buildings. It covers the design method for deflection and stress calculations which model the angle as a propped cantilever and is validated for a set range of support angles. Two design examples are then presented to illustrate the described method. Finally the ‘Good Construction Practice’ section notes the key points for angle and fixing details, construction details and recommended construction sequence.
No matter what the buidling type or application, a door is expected to remain functional, secure and attractive for the life of the building. Fire, blast and sound resistance; ease of cleaning; and corrosion resistance are all practical reasons for selecting stainless steel doors, but they can also have decorative raised design and elaborate surface finishes which provide limitless creative design possibilities.
The use of stainless steel rebar in concrete is becoming more important today. Stainless steel provides long and maintenance-free life of structures, as it resists corrosion from aggressive environments. Cedinox just published a book which presents scientific research techniques as well as case studies of applications of stainless steel reinforced concrete.
Technical paper from the cement together with the stainless steel industry, describing the advantages of stainless steel reinforced concrete.
This training programme (10 short and informative modules) has been designed for students and lecturers of architecture and civil engineering, but can be of interest to all who want to learn about stainless steels. The programme is informative and entertaining and does not require any specific prior knowledge. Links for references are provided.
Despite many attractive characteristics, ferritic stainless steel is currently under-used in the construction industry due to a lack of reliable information relating to structural behaviour. A three year pan-European project was completed in 2014 which studied the structural performance of ferritic stainless steels. The objectives of the project were:
- To develop Eurocode-aligned structural guidance for ferritic grades not previously studied but which were identified as being appropriate for structural use;
- To study construction-relevant aspects of structural design and corrosion resistance which have not been studied before (e.g. the performance of structural joints, structural fire resistance, corrosion performance of welded and bolted joints etc.); and
- To examine the structural performance and temperature regulation effects of ferritic stainless steel decking in a composite floor system.
The SAFSS project, which included material and member testing as well as analytical and numerical studies, provided practitioners with useful performance data and design guidance so that ferritic stainless steels can be specified in structures with confidence. The project was, in general, limited to developing guidance relevant to these applications involving material less than 6 mm thick in both welded and bolted construction. Five ferritic grades were studied, with varying levels of corrosion resistance (and cost).
This project was carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel of the European Community and the International Chromium Development Association.
For more information, please contact Nancy Baddoo at the Steel Construction Institute (N.Baddoo@steel-sci.com)
All project reports and a summary report can be found on the SCI Stainless Steel Portal: http://www.steel-stainless.org/ferritics
This resource is a design guide aimed at engineers with structural design experience using carbon steel but not necessarily with stainless steel. The guidance covers mechanical and physical properties, design strength, a grade specification guide, member design, connections, fabrication and fire resistant design. A comprehensive set of design tables is included giving gross and effective section properties, section classification and member capacities covering CHS, RHS, SHS, channels, double channels back to back and equal angles back to back. The recommendations have been harmonized with BS 5950-1:2000 and EN 1993 -1-4 whenever appropriate. The grades covered are: austenitic grades EN 1.4301 (304), 1.4401 (316) and the low carbon variants and the duplex grades EN 1.4362 SAF 2304) and 1.4462 (2205). Finally, design examples are presented to demonstrate these design recommendations.
This resource is an guide to stainless steel and its use as a roofing material. The mechanical, physical and environmental properties of stainless steel are described and a cost comparison is presented against carbon steel. Guidance is given on grade and finish selection, compatibility and required corrosion resistance. Detailed roof design is described, considering the shape, folding operations and fasteners. Finally best practice techniques for welding to achieve water tightness is discussed.