Online Information Centre for Stainless Steel in Construction
This paper by A Bouchair was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It is a study focusing on cover plate connections and T stubs in austenitic stainless steel structures. The bolts in these connections are loaded in shear or in tension. It is found that the deformation limits in bearing on the plate connections have to be considered and strain hardening of stainless steels can influence the failure mode on the T-stubs. An FE model is developed and validated. It is concluded that a more extensive study should be carried out to develop the understanding of behaviour in stainless steel connections.
This paper by B Burgan et al. was published by the European Commision. It is a research report that provides details of tests on stainless steel materials, members and connections that were carried out to develop a basis of design for a range of grades. These design rules were incorporated into Eurocode 3 EN1993 Part 1.4 (Structural design of stainless steel) and Part 1.2 (Structural fire design). The project concentrated on the most commonly used austenitic stainless steels grades EN 1.4301 and 1.4401, the duplex grade EN 1.4462 and a small number of tests on ferritic grades. The tests were performed on: Beams and Columns (I-section and CHS), Welded and bolted connections, Material and member behaviour at elevated temperatures (fire resistance) and fatigue behaviour.
This paper by L Gardner and M Theofanous was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It is a study summarising the new test data for stainless steel cross sections. It covers cold formed and welded plated elements together with CHS. Existing design guidance is based on limited test data and is therefore conservative, leading to strict slenderness limits. Following the analysis of the new test data, new slenderness limits for all loading conditions are proposed and statistically validated. Additionally a new approach to the treatment of local buckling in structural elements - the continuous strength method (CSM) - is outlined. It is based on a continuous relationship between cross-section slenderness and deformation capacity and applied in conjunction with accurate modeling. This method enables more rational and precise predictions of local buckling and therefore allows more economic design of the material.
This paper by B Young was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It summarises research techniques on the design and behaviour of high strength stainless steel tubular structures. SHS and RHS were cold rolled from high strength austenitic and duplex sheets. Material properties were determined from tensile coupon tests and geometric imperfections and residual stresses were also measured. These experimental results were compared with the design strengths from American, Australian and European specifications for cold formed steel structures.
This paper by R Greiner and M Kettler was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It discusses the buckling behaviour of stainless steel members which aims to develop design formulae for use in Eurocode 3 EN 1993-1-4. The outcome is based on numerical simulations of single span members of various section types, subject to axial compression and bending. Flexural and lateral-torsion al buckling are considered. The recommendations for the design formulae have been incorporated in the present version of EN 1993-1-4.
This paper by P M M Vila Real was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It describes a numerical study on the behaviour of stainless steel I beams subjected to lateral torsional buckling in case of fire. Comparisons are made with the beam design curves found in Eurocode 3. Following this comparison, new formulae for lateral torsional buckling that better approximate the material behaviour, are proposed. These formulae are based on simulations using the program SAFIR, which was modified to take into account the material properties of stainless steel.
Dr Leroy Garder, from Imperial College, has published more than 20 research papers investigating the structural response of stainless steel. Through experiments and numerical analyses, he has studied cold formed sections, hollow sections, connections and response in fire, developing more economic design procedures for structural stainless steel than are currently in the Eurocode EN 1993-1-4.
Professor Kim Rasmussen, from the University of Sydney, has published many research papers on the structural response of stainless steel. His recent research interests include the distortional buckling and interaction buckling of stainless steel structural members, which he has studied through experimental programmes and numerical analyses and developed advanced design recommendations for these members.
This paper by N R Baddoo was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It reviews the research activities over the last 20 years that have impacted the use of stainless steel in construction. These include: The development of weldable duplexes, which have excellent mechanical properties and improvements in surface finishes, which allows for further architectural applications. The development of national and international specifications, codes and standards covering the design, fabrication and erection processes is discussed. New opportunities for stainless steels that are arising from the increasing issue of sustainability are discussed, for example in nuclear, solar and biofuel power generation, sustainable building envelopes and flooring systems. It is concluded that the shift towards sustainability is making the high initial cost of stainless steel much more acceptable.
This resource summarises test data from an extensive range of fire tests on stainless steels. The resource is divided into distinct work packages that were undertaken by various organisations. These packages are: Fire resistant structures and products (analyzing temperature development in various arrangements of stainless steel elements with FE), Composite members in fire (tests on unreinforced and reinforced concrete inside EN grade 1.4401 RHS stainless steel section), Class 4 cross sections in fire (tests on loaded RHS columns), Bolts and welds at elevated temperatures (isothermal tests on butt welded joints and bolt assemblies in shear and tension), Parametric fire design (numerical studies on stainless steel as external columns and as columns in open car parks subject to realistic fire loads) and Design aids and software (A set of generic strength retention curves are developed and online software for predicting the fire resistance design of cold formed stainless steel structural members). All these packages are summarised and design guidance based on the findings is presented.
This resource is a publication containing 13 papers on recent research and development work in the field of structural stainless steel. The papers describe a range of experimental and numerical investigations into the structural behaviour of stainless steel with particular emphasis on cold worked grades. The papers are:
- Local buckling of cold-formed stainless steel sections
- Design of welded connections of cold-worked stainless steel RHS members
- Buckling reduction factors for stainless steel shell structures
- Isothermal material tests of cold worked stainless steel
- Tests of cold-formed stainless steel tubular columns
- R and D work and current practise for stainless steel structural design in Italy
- Research on light-weight stainless steel structures in Japan
- GBT-based local and global buckling analysis of C-section and RHS stainless steel columns
- Structural design in hot-rolled 3CR12 section
- Experimental and numerical investigation on shear response of stainless steel plated girders
- Stainless steel girders - Resistance to concentrated loads and shear
- Stainless steel - Plasticity and constitutive modeling
- Recent stainless steel research in the UK - An improved method for structural design and numerical modeling
- A comparison of structural stainless steel design standards
This publication is written for designers and owners of biogas plants and gives information on the design, fabrication and installation of stainless steel biodigester tanks. Much of the information in the brochure was developed during the EU’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel project: Innovative and competitive solutions using stainless steel and adhesive bonding in biogas production (BIOGASS). This was a three year research project which was completed in 2016. The project partners included stainless steel producers, research institutes, universities and a tank manufacturer. Through experimental tests, field trials and numerical analysis, the project generated design guidance for a range of grades of stainless steels which are suitable for application in biodigesters.
This paper by R Cruise and L Gardner was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It discusses the strength enhancements induced during cold forming of stainless steel sections. The material properties of stainless steel are sensitive to plastic deformation. Unique strength distributions from different forming techniques influence the residual stress patterns. This paper presents results from experiments measuring stress distributions in cold rolled box sections and press braked angles. It is concluded that cold rolling creates strength enhancements that should be considered in structural design to avoid considerable underestimation of member resistance.
This paper by L Gardner and N Baddoo was published in the Journal 'Thin-Walled Structures'. It provides details of extensive experimental and numerical studies on material specimens, structural members and connections in order to generate valuable data on the key aspects of the structural design of cold worked stainless steel. There are 7 Work Packages: Material properties, Structural hollow sections, Cold formed profiles and sheeting, Welded and screwed connections, Fatigue, Elevated temperature properties and Long products. In each Work Package, the testing procedure, results, numerical study and the developed design guidance are presented. This guidance aims to facilitate economic structural design by utilizing the strength enhancement created by cold working.
This paper by R Feng and B Young was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It describes a test programme on a range of concrete filled cold formed stainless steel tubular T-joints fabricated from SHS ands RHS brace and chord members. 27 tests were performed using duplex and austenitic stainless steel. An axial compression force was applied via a steel bearing plate to the top end of the brace member, which was welded to the centre of the chord member. The failure mode of the chord members face and side panels were observed. It is concluded that the design strengths predicted by the current design are quite conservative. Therefore it is recommended that the stainless steel tube contribution be included in the design rules as it has significant effect on the ultimate bearing capacity of the considered sections.
This paper by J Becque was published in the Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Volume 64 Issue 11, November 2008. It presents the direct strength equations for stainless steel compression members and sections. These are based on recent research on local, distortional and member buckling in compression members. The research is summarised and the equations are presented for local, distortional and combined local and member buckling in a consistent format, using notation similar to the North American Specification and Australian standard for carbon steel structures.
This is a link to the search page on the VTT research publication website. The search engine allows: the title and keyword text, author, date, industry and language to be defined in the search. All research publications are freely available in pdf format but some require registration with the VTT website first. There is a wide range of research papers on stainless steel, e.g: stress corrosion cracking, fire resistance, innovative fabrication techniques in welding and cutting, non-structural applications in soil and water, structural applications using lightweight and austenitic grades and transport structures.