Fabrication & Installation

Application of Stainless Steel in the Water Industry
Description

This resource is an information and guidance note aimed to help plant designers and operators realise the opportunities where selecting stainless steel for applications in the water industry will yield economic benefits. The material properties of stainless steel are described and the finishes noted. Guidance is then given on material selection for corrosion resistance, design of structural members, tanks and pipework systems, fabrication and installation. Finally the economic benefits in the form of savings are summarised for initial installation, operating and life cycle costs.

Date
1999
Provider
Other
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Architects Guide to Stainless Steel (SCI-P179)
Description

This resource provides information on the design, specification, manufacture and maintenance of stainless steel architectural components. The ‘Design and Technology’ section includes structural and performance information on stainless steel and reviews production and finishing techniques. The ‘Case Studies’ section provides numerous examples of the contemporary use of stainless steel in architecture. In each case the design criteria, finish, joining techniques, structural drawings and images for the stainless steel element are described and presented. The Appendices summarise the standards relating to stainless steel, the mechanical and physical properties the product range and the finish designation.

Date
1997
Provider
SCI
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Castings in Construction (SCI-P172)
Description

This resource is a guide aimed to provide engineers, architects and fabricators with the properties and capabilities of iron, carbon steel and stainless steel castings. Castings provide high strength, ductility and toughness, efficient production methods, excellent surface finish, and have good welding and machining characteristics. These properties allow savings on materials and minimise manufacturing costs.  This guide explains the basic processes and techniques of castings and provides information for the designer on welding, surface finishes, tolerances and inspection and testing methods. It emphasises the importance of correct specification of the casting techniques and the appropriate level of quality. The procurement process is explained and illustrated with flowcharts. Appendices give examples of recent projects using structural castings, including 4 detailed case histories featuring main truss connections, glazing connections, beam to column connections and compression members in a bridge. Lists of sources of further information and the addresses of some UK foundries are also given.

Date
1996
Provider
SCI
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Cleaning Methods for Stainless Steel
Description

This resource tabulates information about the cleaning of stainless steel. The table firstly describes the cleaning requirement, ranging from light soiling to heavily neglected surfaces with grime deposits and paint stains. The cleaning method is then explained for each case, detailing the use of detergents, chemical liquids, pastes,  abrasive brushes etc.

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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Erection and Installation of Stainless Steel Components
Description

This is a detailed information leaflet with general guidance on erecting or installing both architectural and structural stainless steel. The guidance is suitable for austenitic, ferritic and duplex steel. The requirements for the execution of steel structures as outlined by EN 1090, particularly with respect to tolerances and site welding, are explained. Guidance is given on transportation, handling and storage, erection, site welding and the installation of light gauge cladding panels.

Date
2006
Provider
Euro Inox
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Execution of Stainless Steel Structures (ED018)
Description

This document gives the clauses relating to stainless steel structures in EN 1090 Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures. Part 2: Technical requirements for the execution of steel structures with accompanying commentary. Additionally, it provides a set of optional and additional clauses that may be used in drawing up execution specifications for stainless steel structures, in conjunction with EN 1090-2, for individual projects. The clauses represent an industry 'best practice' view of how the general requirements of EN 1090-2 may be modified and supplemented, where permitted by that Standard, to achieve the quality and reliability to be expected for stainless steel structures designed in accordance with the Structural Eurocodes.

Date
Feb 2014
Provider
SCI
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Guidelines on the Welded Fabrication of Stainless Steel
Description

This resource is on CDROM and provides information, illustrations and images on the welded fabrication of stainless steels. It is aimed at welding experts who are familiar with carbon steels but wish to extend their knowledge to stainless. The program is divided into 7 sections: Corrosion, Stainless steel families, Principal welding processes (the various arc welding techniques), Behaviour during welding (including post-weld treatments), Joining of dissimilar steels, Weld preparation and different applications in construction and manufacturing and Examples of different weld qualities (MAG, tubular, TIG and Manual welding).

Date
2007
Provider
Euro Inox
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Manufacture, Processing and Use of Stainless Steel: A Review of the Health Effects
Description

This resource is a critical review of the literature relating to health effects associated with stainless steels, from manufacture through to processing and end use. It is aimed to provide an evaluation of the health hazards against the EU classification criteria. The material itself, the manufacture and the processing (cutting, polishing, forming) of stainless steel is then assessed for hazards for exposure, toxicokinetics and toxicity and finally any further research resources are noted.

Date
1999
Provider
Euro Inox
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Pickling and Passivating Stainless Steel
Description

This resource describes the surface treatments known as pickling and passivation that can be applied to stainless steel. Pickling uses nitric and hydrofluoric acids to remove a thin layer of metal from the surface.  Passivation uses nitric acid to improve the quality and thickness of the passive layer on the surface. Procedures for removing weld heat tint and rust contamination are explained.

Date
2007
Provider
Euro Inox
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Post-fabrication surface treatment of stainless steels
Description

Manufacturers and users do not always fully understand the importance of restoring a clean stainless steel surface after fabrication. Euro Inox has published a concise paper, which explains why, when and how post-fabrication surface treatment should be applied.

Table of contents:
WHY SURFACE FINISHING IS IMPORTANT
MECHANICAL METHODS
- Grinding and polishing
- Blasting
- Brushing
- Water jetting
CHEMICAL METHODS
- Acid pickling by immersion
- Swabbing – pickling with paste
- Spraying
- Cleaning with passivation
- Pickling different stainless steel grades
- Finishing treatments for welds, oxide scale and heat tint
- Free iron contamination
NEUTRALISATION AND WASTE TREATMENT
SAFETY RULES
APPENDIX
- Acid descaling (pickling) of stainless steel
- Acid cleaning conditions for stainless steel
REFERENCES

Date
February 2015
Provider
Euro Inox
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Stainless Steel in Contact with Other Metallic Materials
Description

- The principle of galvanic corrosion
- Relevant factors and examples
- Practical experience in different applications
- Preventing galvanic corrosion

Experience shows that the compatibility of different metals in mixed-material assemblies is an often-neglected aspect of design, fabrication and installation. This is particularly relevant when “noble” materials like stainless steel are used in direct contact with other, more common metallic materials. While this is does not normally affect stainless steel, the less corrosion-resistant partner metal may suffer accelerated corrosion. The brochure explains the underlying principle of galvanic corrosion and gives guidance towards – usually simple – precautionary measures that prevent unwanted reactions. It provides practical examples from building and construction, water and sewage treatment and plumbing. It enables the reader to find out which material combinations are safe and which require special attention. The brochure gives advice on practical methods of preventing galvanic corrosion.

Date
2009
Provider
Euro Inox
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Stainless Steel Masonry Support Systems (SCI-P297), Best Practice Information Sheet for Contractors
Description

This resource is a best practice information sheet for contractors. It should be read in conjunction with ‘Best Practice Information Sheet for Specifiers (SCI-P298)’. Stainless steel masonry support systems are fixed to the structural frame and provide support to the outer leaf of masonry cladding in buildings. Firstly the article covers Safety and Storage and then the installation techniques for the following: Structural Frame, Soft Horizontal Joints, Vertical Movement Joints, Cavity Width Adjustments, Horizontal Adjustments, Vertical Adjustments, Fixings, Edge and End Distances, Wall Ties and finally the use of Cleaning Chemicals.

Date
2000
Provider
SCI
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The Ferritic Solution, Properties, Advantages, Applications
Description

This resource is a detailed review of ferritic stainless steels with the aim of promoting their use. As ferritic stainless steels do not contain nickel, their price is relatively stable. The chemical composition, mechanical and physical properties, welding techniques, fabrication practices and available product forms are all listed. Examples are given demonstrating the use of ferritics in a wide range of sectors.

Date
2007
Provider
ISSF
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The Forming Potential of Stainless Steel
Description

This resource aims to demonstrate the significant forming potential of stainless steel. The effect of forming on the mechanical properties for each stainless steel family is presented. The most commonly used finishes are then described with reference to EN 10088 Part 2. The article then uses 9 case studies on mechanical parts (pumps, rims, heat exchange plates, etc.) to demonstrate the range of applications stainless steel can be used for - techniques such as hydro-forming, cold rolling, metal spinning, explosion forming and deep drawing are explained.

Date
2008
Provider
Euro Inox
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The Mechanical Finishing of Decorative Stainless Steel Surfaces
Description

This resource outlines mechanical finishing methods that are appropriate for stainless steel fabrications, describing and illustrating current "best-practice" and emphasizing some of the differences between carbon steel and stainless steel practice. Frequently used finishing methods such as grinding, polishing, buffing and brushing are described. The use of hand tools such as abrasive belts and discs as well as powered equipment such as fixed and portable finishing tools are explained. A guide to best finishing practice is also given. Case studies demonstrating a stainless steel finish are presented, covering the fabrication and installation procedures. Also available on CDROM which includes 2 video presentations showing examples of the operations involved.

Date
2005
Provider
Euro Inox
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The Welding of Stainless Steel
Description

This resource is a paper describing how to weld stainless steels. Firstly it describes the chemical composition and mechanical properties associated with the different families of stainless steels. Then the majority of the paper concerns itself with ‘welding processes’, with the sub headings of ‘electric arc’, ‘resistance and induction’ and ‘radiation energy’ -  under each, the available techniques are illustrated and described. Following this, the weldability of each family, selection of shielding gases, selection of welding consumables, joint preparation in arc welding, finishing treatments and safe practices are covered.

Date
2007
Provider
Euro Inox
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Welding and Post Fabrication Cleaning for Construction and Architectural Applications
Description

This resource is a paper describing the issues of distortion during fabrication and welding, control of stainless steel welding processes and post fabrication cleaning. Buckling distortion can result from either poor design or welding practices. The key factors for good welding are clearly defined welding procedures (BS EN 1011 and BS EN 287 and BS EN 288 are mentioned), control of heat input, temperature control and cleanliness. Welding electrode selection and methods including TIG, MMA, FCA, plasma, submerged arc and stud welding are covered. Finally, the importance of careful heat tint removal (temper coloured areas) is discussed by either mechanical abrasion or chemical pickling cleaning methods. Although this establishes the corrosion resistance for the particular grade welded, care is needed with chemical pickling as it can change (dull) the aesthetic appearance of the surfaces.

Date
2002
Provider
BSSA
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