Specification

Alloying Elements in Stainless Steel and Other Chromium-Containing Alloys
Description

This resource summarises all the alloying elements found in all varieties of stainless steels. Each family (Austenitic, Ferritic, Martenistic, Duplex, Precipitation Hardening) is described in terms of its mechanical and physical properties stemming from the elements found in them. Each element (Carbon, Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum, Niobium, Titanium, Manganese, Silicon, Nitrogen, Cobalt) is then individually described and the change in mechanical properties that different concentrations of the element has on the steel is explained.

Date
2004
Provider
Euro Inox
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Application of Stainless Steel in the Water Industry
Description

This resource is an information and guidance note aimed to help plant designers and operators realise the opportunities where selecting stainless steel for applications in the water industry will yield economic benefits. The material properties of stainless steel are described and the finishes noted. Guidance is then given on material selection for corrosion resistance, design of structural members, tanks and pipework systems, fabrication and installation. Finally the economic benefits in the form of savings are summarised for initial installation, operating and life cycle costs.

Date
1999
Provider
Other
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Approval and Use of Products with a Small Surface Area in Contact with Water - Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI)
Description

This resource is an advice sheet that provides guidance on the approval process for products that come into contact with water intended for human consumption. Stainless steels are covered in chapter 5 - ‘Metallic Products’ in which readers are directed to the same guidelines as in chapter 3 of advice sheet 5 - ‘Approval of Products made from Recognised Materials’ for any metallic elements including boreholes and wells.

Date
2012
Provider
Other
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Approval of Products made from Recognised Materials - Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI)
Description

This resource is an advice sheet that provides guidance on the approval process for products that come into contact with water intended for human consumption. Stainless steels are covered in chapter 3 - ‘Metallic Products’ - and Annex 5 - ‘STAINLESS STEEL GRADES TESTED ACCORDING TO BS 7766’ - lists a number of grades. Guidance is given on approval procedures for grades in the list and not in the list. Guidance is also given on communication pipes.

Date
2012
Provider
Other
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Architects Guide to Stainless Steel (SCI-P179)
Description

This resource provides information on the design, specification, manufacture and maintenance of stainless steel architectural components. The ‘Design and Technology’ section includes structural and performance information on stainless steel and reviews production and finishing techniques. The ‘Case Studies’ section provides numerous examples of the contemporary use of stainless steel in architecture. In each case the design criteria, finish, joining techniques, structural drawings and images for the stainless steel element are described and presented. The Appendices summarise the standards relating to stainless steel, the mechanical and physical properties the product range and the finish designation.

Date
1997
Provider
SCI
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Architecture, Building and Construction
Description

This link provides numerous further links to BSSA resources for anyone involved in designing and using stainless steel in the Architecture Building and Construction Sector. It covers a diverse range of applications including architectural cladding, handrails, roofing, drainage products, wall support products and structural applications (swimming pools, reinforcing bars and fire resistance). Brief specification guidance is given in each section before the links to further resources are presented.

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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Austenitic Stainless Steels for Timber Fixings
Description

This resource is a short article describing the use of stainless steel for timber fixings. Austentic stainless steel is considered to have excellent resistance to corrosion by acetic acid emitted by wood. Following this suitability, the article recommends stainless steel for staples, nail and wall ties. It also discusses the criteria for the selection of grades when considering stainless steel fixings in immersed timber structures.

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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Bauprofile aus Edelstahl Rostfrei Dokumetation 864
Description

This resource lists the range of available stainless steel section shapes and sizes available in Germany. It also references delivery standards, edge design, finish, grades, Products covered include flat and round bars, rectangular, hexagonal and double-T profiles, flats, squares, angles, channels, T-profile, round tubes, square tubes and rectangular tubes and reinforcing steel. Also covered: masonry sections, facade profiles, window profiles, door frame, railing systems, stair rails, anchor rails. It includes as an annex the German Technical Approval Sonderdruck 862 - Allgemeine bauaufsichtliche Zulassung Z-30.3-6 vom. 5 Dezember 2003.

Date
2008
Provider
Other
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Bimetallic Corrosion Risks from Contact with Galvanised Steel or Aluminium
Description

This resource explains the causes of bimetallic corrosion in stainless steel which occurs when two dissimlar metals are in 'electrical' contact and are bridged by an electrically conductive liquid. The corrosion risks of metals often found in contact, such as stainless steel touching galvanised steel or aluminium, are considered for locations of various levels of corrosion. The discolouration (staining) effects on metals in contact are also discussed.

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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British Stainless Steel Association Stainless Steel Sections Directory
Description

This resource is the second edition of an excel spreadsheet prepared by the BSSA specifying all the available stainless steel product forms in the UK. The section categories are: I-Beam Section, H Section, T-Profile (equal and unequal), Z-Profile, Angles (equal and unequal), Channels, Circular Hollow Section, Square Hollow Section, Rectangular Hollow Section, Cold Formed Hollow Section and Special Section.

Date
2008
Provider
BSSA
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Capabilities and Limitations of Architectural Metals and Metals for Corrosion Resistance I
Description

Metal has become increasingly popular because if provides unique design opportunities, strength and corrosion resistance. Each metal family has unique characteristics. Performance over time depends on the designer understanding the advantages and limitations of each metal and taking these into consideration during the design process. Part 2. Predicting a metal's performance in exterior applications, soil, or concrete requires knowledge of the factors influencing corrosion. Unfortunately, good comparative corrosion data for different metals can be difficult to obtain. Research reports comparing service environments and the performance of different metals are usually written by and for metallurgical engineers. This article summarizes published data and other selection citeria so non-metallurgists can take advantage of available research.

Date
2000
Provider
Nickel Institute
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Care and Maintenance of Stainless Steel
Description

This resource describes the importance of regular cleaning to prevent discolouration and corrosion of stainless steels.  for example. A tabulated maintenance programme is given for different locations (urban, rural, coastal or marine) for 3 different grades (1.4016 (430), 1.4301 (304) and 1.4401 (316)).

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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Cleaning Methods for Stainless Steel
Description

This resource tabulates information about the cleaning of stainless steel. The table firstly describes the cleaning requirement, ranging from light soiling to heavily neglected surfaces with grime deposits and paint stains. The cleaning method is then explained for each case, detailing the use of detergents, chemical liquids, pastes,  abrasive brushes etc.

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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Colored Stainless Offers A Rainbow Of Possibilities
Description

When stainless steel is specified, there is no reason to limit the color choice to silver. A rainbow of choices is available in both opaque and translucent colors providing considerable design flexibility. This is the first installment of a two-part article on coloring methods for stainless steel.

Date
January 2006
Provider
Other
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Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels in Soils and in Concrete
Description

The resource is a report on corrosion of stainless steels in soils and concrete. Concerning soils, the classification and corrosivity of different soils, the corrosion resistance of stainless steels in soils and a basic guide for the correct selection of grade in inland and marine locations are given. Concerning concrete, a description describing how the elements within it lead to the corrosion of stainless steels and the corrosion resistance of each stainless steel family are given. In conclusion it is recommended that stainless steel structures in soil should be considered firstly in relation to the preserve of chloride ions and secondly according to their resistivity and pH. Stainless steels in concrete with a PRE > 19 should be satisfactory in most cases and in carbonate or chloride containing concrete, grade 1.4401 is suitable.

Date
2002
Provider
Euro Inox
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Designing on the Waterfront
Description

With their exposure to high levels of salt, coastal waterfront locations are notorious for corrosion problems. Whether the location is in close proximity to saltwater, exposed to sea spray and splashing, or subject to occasional tidal storm surges, rapid corrosion can be a substantial concern. Buildings, railings, light poles and sculptures adjoining saltwater are at risk for issues ranging from premature aesthetic problems to outright structural failure.

Date
November 2007
Provider
Other
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Designing on the Waterfront
Description

With their exposure to high levels of salt, coastal waterfront locations are notorious for corrosion problems. Whether the location is in close proximity to saltwater, exposed to sea spray and splashing, or subject to occasional tidal storm surges, rapid corrosion can be a substantial concern. Buildings, railings, light poles and sculptures adjoining saltwater are at risk for issues ranging from premature aesthetic problems to outright structural failure.

Date
November 2007
Provider
Other
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Do's and Don'ts in Selecting and Specifying Stainless Steel Surface Finishes
Description

This resource firstly outlines mill and mechanically polished (brushed) stainless steel finishes to EN 10088 Part 2. Patterned finishes, widely used in architectural applications and useful for reducing distortion, are also described. Bead blasted, electroplolished and coloured finishes are also covered.  Surface roughness values are shown for mill and polished surfaces. The care required during the fabrication and installation of stainless steel parts and the maintenance methods are discussed. Finally case studies demonstrating good grade and finish selection are described.

Date
2002
Provider
BSSA
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Fire Resistance Rating and Testing of Stainless Steels
Description

This resource explains fire testing and fire rating of stainless steel components. Stainless steels do not have an intrinsic fire rating but all families (austenitic, duplex, ferritic) have inherent oxidation resistance and elevated temperature strength. Testing is done on specific grades under precise conditions according to BS 476 Parts 20, 21 (load bearing elements) and 22 (non load bearing elements). The results of fire test show that for load bearing applications stainless steel has better heat resistance than carbon steels, melting at 1375 degrees C and maintaining 55% of its ambient temperature 0.2% proof stress at 800 degrees C.

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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Fixings and Corrosion
Description

This resource is a guidance note from the Construction Fixings Association (CFA). Firstly, an introduction to the conditions that typically lead to corrosion in metallic fixings is presented and a brief guide to correct material selection given. Secondly the different types of corrosion that can occur and the methods to prevent them are described. Finally 6 metals are considered (zinc plated steel, HDG coated brackets, aluminum, unplated structural steel, cast steel and stainless steel) and the corrosion resistance according to the different available finishes is summarised.

Date
2002
Provider
BSSA
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Guide to Stainless Steel Finishes
Description

This resource is a complete overview of the available finishes on stainless steel. There are 7 finishing techniques that can be applied- mill, brushed, patterned, bead blasted, electropolished, coloured and decorative. For each finishing technique, the fabrication method is described while noting the adjustments to the technique that produce various aesthetic effects. Annex A provides the technical and practical aspects to grade selection, workability, cleanability, corrosion avoidance tips and the uniformity of finish. Annex B summarises the available finishes and fabrication in tabulated form. Also available on CDROM.

Date
2005
Provider
Euro Inox
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Guidelines for Corrosion Prevention
Description

Stainless steel is one of the most durable materials used in architecture, building and construction. With appropriate grade and finish selection, design, fabrication, and maintenance, the appearance and properties of stainless steel will remain unchanged over the life of a building. These properties make stainless steel a popular choice for buildings designed to last 50 or more years. Atmospheric corrosion, tarnishing, pitting, crevice corrosion, embedded iron, erosion/corrosion, galvanic corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking can all impact the performance and appearance of building materials. This paper discusses all of these issues and describes stainless steel's performance relative to other construction materials.

Date
2001
Provider
Nickel Institute
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How to Quantify the Environmental impact of Stainless Steel
Description

This research paper by H Fujii and T Nagaiwa was presented in the SETAC North America Annual Meeting, November 2005. It describes how to apply the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data for stainless steel products and recommends a simple standard for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) practitioners with stainless steel. These are ISO-standardized methodologies and are a useful in indicating if a material truly contributes to sustainable development. LCI data is presented for stainless steel grades and examples are given to illustrate the method. There is discussion on the energy saving and reduction in CO2 emissions and it is concluded that stainless steel is a highly sustainable material.

Date
2005
Provider
ISSF
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Metals for Corrosion Resistance: Part II
Description

How long will the metal panels stay attractive? How much maintenance is required? Architects, building owners,structural engineers, and other specifiers regularly face these questions. Materials selection decisions are often based on personal experience and budget limitations rather than scientific data. Usually the result is satisfactory, but when the wrong metal is used and problems arise,reputations can be damaged and remedial costs can be high.

Date
November 2000
Provider
Nickel Institute
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Milan Building Exterior
Description

One of Italy's leading engineering firms, Torno Internationale SpA, asked the design firm Dante Benini & Partners to renovate their existing Milan, Italy offices and to design a new adjoining office building. The modernisation of the existing 1960's eight-story building was completed in 2002 and includes a seven-story, micro-perforated, Type 316 stainless steel trapezoidal screen that conceals communication grids and walkways on the northeast side of the building.

Date
July 2009
Provider
IMOA
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Minneapolis Stainless Steel Exterior Wall Panels and Window Frames
Description

This resource is a case study on the stainless steel exterior found on the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum in Minneapolis, USA. The structure is located on a major road bridge where deicing salts are used making the area highly corrosive. EN grade 1.4401 (type 316) was used for the wall panels and window frames with a smooth No. 4 finish in order to ensure a unique look that possessed high durability and required little to no maintenance. The vertical finish grain orientation makes it easy for natural rain washing to remove salt. The study contains information and images describing on the stainless steel elements, design criteria and performance of the finished product since construction. Also presented is a stainless steel selection criteria which uses the case study as an example, it considers: environment, salt exposure, weather, design and maintenance.

Date
2006
Provider
IMOA
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Special Finishes for Stainless Steel
Description

Colorful illustrations throughout this free Designer Handbook provide a sampling of the customized, special finishes for stainless steel available in today's marketplace. Learn about etched, embossed, rolled, colored, and other special finishes, and where you can find them through the handbook's Directory of Representative Suppliers.

Date
2000
Provider
Other
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Special Grades of Stainless Steel - Where to Find Them
Description

This resource is an Excel spreadsheet listing the unusual grades of stainless steel (i.e. not grades: 1.4301, 1.4307, 1.4401, 1.4404) and where to find suitable suppliers of them. The worksheets provide details of the availability of a wide number of grades in various product forms. The Data is sorted by Company then Product Type then Steel Type and then EN Grade - extra columns provide all the alternative grade designations. The families (EN grades) of steel covered include; Ferritic (1.4003, 1.4016,1.4509, 1.4512), Martensitic (1.4000, 1.4021, 1.4028, 1.4057, 1.4112), Austenitic (1.4311, 1.4406, 1.4432, 1.4435, 1.4436, 1.4439, 1.4539, 1.4547), Ferritic Heat Resisting (1.4713, 1.4742, 1.4762), Austenitic Heat Resisting (1.4818, 1.4828, 1.4833, 1.4835, 1.4841, 1.4845) and Duplex (1.4162, 1.4362, 1.4462, 1.4410, 1.4501).

Date
-
Provider
BSSA
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Specifying Stainless Steel Surface Treatments
Description

This resource discusses various stainless steel surface treatments: passivation, pickling, electropolishing and mechanical cleaning. Also discussed are conditions which would favour one method over another depending on the application.

Date
1992
Provider
Nickel Institute
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Stainless steel and CO2: Facts and scientific observations
Description

Like any other industry, the stainless steel industry aims to reduce its CO2 emissions. The purpose of this document is to clarify what those emissions are and where they originate.

Date
2015
Provider
ISSF
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Stainless steel and sustainable construction
Description

This resource aims to provide architects and other specifiers with an overview of stainless steel and sustainble construction. It decribes properties inherent to stainless steels such as: good corrosion resistance, structural efficiency, durability, low maintenace, lasting beauty and 100% reusability and recylability which lead to sustainable development. Correct grade selection for the intended environment and the use of experienced fabricators is also discussed and found to be highly important. The resource also adresses the future challenges for sustainble stainless steel constrcution with relation to the environmental impact the production of the material has and measures to reduce this.

Date
2004
Provider
BSSA
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Stainless Steel for Rainwater Goods and Accessories
Description

This resource is a technical guide for designers using stainless steel in drainage systems. The advantages and disadvantages of different grades of stainless steel in drainage systems are discussed. The surface finishes available are considered (milled, brushed, matt, tin coated, annealed and coloured). Finally the guidelines for working with stainless steel are described - the tools used, forming, soldering, bonding and fixings.

Date
2005
Provider
Euro Inox
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Stainless Steel Grade Selection Software
Description

This resource is program designed to help specifers select appropriate stainless steels and surface finishes for applications where corrosion staining is aesthetically unacceptable, even without structural deterioration. The program uses the tabs; ‘environment’ to choose the pollution levels, ‘salt’ to choose the distance to coastal or trafficked areas, ‘weather’ to choose the climate, ‘design’ to choose the element orientation and surface finish and ‘maintenance’ to choose the cleaning schedule. Following the completion of these tabs, a ‘stainless steel selection guideline’ tab becomes available. This tab presents numerous suitable grade selections and also a series of warnings for the specifier to consider.

Date
2006
Provider
IMOA
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Stainless Steel in Fire
Description

This resource summarises test data from an extensive range of fire tests on stainless steels. The resource is divided into distinct work packages that were undertaken by various organisations. These packages are: Fire resistant structures and products (analyzing temperature development in various arrangements of stainless steel elements with FE), Composite members in fire (tests on unreinforced and reinforced concrete inside EN grade 1.4401 RHS stainless steel section), Class 4 cross sections in fire (tests on loaded RHS columns), Bolts and welds at elevated temperatures (isothermal tests on butt welded joints and bolt assemblies in shear and tension), Parametric fire design (numerical studies on stainless steel as external columns and as columns in open car parks subject to realistic fire loads) and Design aids and software (A set of generic strength retention curves are developed and online software for predicting the fire resistance design of cold formed stainless steel structural members). All these packages are summarised and design guidance based on the findings is presented.

Date
2008
Provider
SCI
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Stainless Steel in Indoor Swimming Pool Buildings
Description

This resource is an article produced by Nancy Baddoo and Peter Cutler that explains how to select the most suitable stainless steel grade for indoor swimming pools. Firstly the article discusses the advantages of stainless steel in the highly corrosive environment of an indoor pool and describes some of the failures due to poor grade selection that have occurred in the last 10 years due to chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The indoor swimming pool environment is then explained and the causes and processes behind SCC given. Stainless steel as a material is described and a table of characteristic properties of typical grades used in indoor swimming pools is presented. Finally guidance for grade selection based on the level of concern for SCC and positioning of the element is given, summarizing the suitable grades in each case. It is concluded that stainless steels remain the most appropriate material for indoor swimming pools but careful grade selection and periodic inspection on safety-critical, load-bearing elements is essential.

Date
2004
Provider
BSSA
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Stainless Steel in Swimming Pool Buildings
Description

This resource is a best practice guide for architects, designers, builders and pool managers on the successful use of stainless steel in swimming pool buildings. Stainless steels are well established as corrosion resistant materials for many items used in building and equipping swimming pools. For decades, stainless steels have had an excellent track record - typically specified for equipment in the pool water (ladders, wave machine grilles), and in environmental engineering plant control boxes, air handling equipment and fire dampers.  Note that the guidance contained in this publication on grade selection is now superseded following further research.

Date
1995
Provider
Nickel Institute
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Stainless Steel Masonry Support Systems (SCI-P297), Best Practice Information Sheet for Contractors
Description

This resource is a best practice information sheet for contractors. It should be read in conjunction with ‘Best Practice Information Sheet for Specifiers (SCI-P298)’. Stainless steel masonry support systems are fixed to the structural frame and provide support to the outer leaf of masonry cladding in buildings. Firstly the article covers Safety and Storage and then the installation techniques for the following: Structural Frame, Soft Horizontal Joints, Vertical Movement Joints, Cavity Width Adjustments, Horizontal Adjustments, Vertical Adjustments, Fixings, Edge and End Distances, Wall Ties and finally the use of Cleaning Chemicals.

Date
2000
Provider
SCI
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Stainless Steel Masonry Support Systems (SCI-P298), Best Practice Information Sheet for Specifiers
Description

This resource is a best practice information sheet for specifiers. It should be read in conjunction with ‘Best Practice Information Sheet for Contractors (SCI-P297)’. Stainless steel masonry support systems are fixed to the structural frame and provide support to the outer leaf of masonry cladding in buildings.  The sheet covers: Type of System - continuous, bracket or individual angles, Cavity widths, Structural Frame - concrete or steel structures, Design, Wall Ties, Material and Avoidance of Bimetallic Corrosion. Finally the information required by the manufacturer to fabricate the correct system is listed.

Date
1995
Provider
SCI
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Stainless Steel Pipes for Buildings
Description

This resource provides information on the design, construction and maintenance of stainless steel piping. ‘The Basics’ describes the mechanical and physical properties of stainless steel. The ‘Design’ section covers: the uses, capacities, specification, horizontal and vertical piping, expansion and contraction, water hammer and corrosion. The ‘Construction’ section covers the: planning, transport handling and storage, cutting, bending, junctions and welding, joints, supporting and anchoring of pipes, coating and testing. The ‘Maintenance’ section covers the methods used, items to inspect, water quality control, types of water system, boilers and supply systems. Finally the ‘Reference’ section provides details of related standards, further information about corrosion in stainless steel and examples to demonstrate common problems.

Date
1987
Provider
Nickel Institute
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Stainless Steel Plumbing
Description

This resource provides a booklet of information tailored towards designers, plumbers, end-users and maintenance engineers interested in providing reliable potable water systems using stainless steel. Firstly the properties and corrosion resistance of stainless steels are described and shown to be significantly more resilient against high water velocities than copper piping. The techniques used to disinfect stainless steels are described. The tubing standards; BS 4127:1994 (light gauge steel) and BS 3605:1991 (austenitic steel) are considered. The types of stainless steel fittings available are presented and finally the fabrication and handling procedures for these fittings are described.

Date
1997
Provider
Nickel Institute
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Stainless Steel: Tables of Technical Properties
Description

This resource contains tabulated information for all stainless steel flat products available (all grades are given in EN and AISI grade designation). The chemical composition of each grade from each family (austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martenistic) is shown as % alloy content. The mechanical properties such as hardness, proof strength, tensile strength and elongation after fracture are given for all the grades, thicknesses and product forms (hot or cold rolled strip and plate). Finally the physical properties such as density, elastic modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and electrical resistivity are given for all grades.

Date
2007
Provider
Euro Inox
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Stress Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Steels in Swimming Pool Buildings
Description

This Health and Safety Executive Sector Information resource outlines the background to stress corrosion cracking failure hazards to stainless steel items used in indoor swimming poll buildings. This follows on from roof failures in Switzerland and the Netherlands and notes that the atmospheres of indoor swimming pool buildings are amongst the most aggressive ones found in building interiors. The resource discusses the background, noting the effects of chlorine based water disinfection systems and the chloramines generated by body fluid excretions on stainless steel components under applied or residual tensile stress. The stress corrosion process is outlined and the susceptibility of grades 1.4301 (304) and 1.4401 (316) to SCC in swimming pool environments noted. Preventative measures, inspection procedures and recommended actions for HSE inspectors are also covered.

Date
2002
Provider
BSSA
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Sustainable Duplex Stainless Steel Bridges
Description

Duplex stainless steels are increasingly used as structural materials in building and architecture because of their exceptional mechanical properties. Their room temperature yield strength in the solutiona nnealed condition is more than twice that of standard austenitic stainless steels not alloyed with nitrogen. Over the last few years, they have started playing an increasingly important role in the construction of bridges, wherever specific environmental conditions combine with the need for high load-bearing capability.

Date
2010
Provider
SCI
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Sustainable Stainless Steel Architectural Design
Description

Interest in sustainable design has grown significantly around the world. Consequently, more complex material comparisons have become common and increasingly include recycled content, expected life service, maintenance requirements, and impact on energy and water consumption.

Date
September 2009
Provider
Other
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Sustainable Stainless Steel Transit Station Design
Description

Airports and stations for trains, subways and buses are vital components of modern infrastructure. Their efficient, uninterrupted service provides substantial economic and environmental benefits. However, despite numurous attractive historic transit facilities around the world, most of the older structures were intended to simply be functional, low-maintenance and inexpensive.

Date
February 2010
Provider
Other
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The Ferritic Solution, Properties, Advantages, Applications
Description

This resource is a detailed review of ferritic stainless steels with the aim of promoting their use. As ferritic stainless steels do not contain nickel, their price is relatively stable. The chemical composition,  mechanical/physical properties, welding techniques, fabrication practices and available product forms are all listed. Examples are given demonstrating the use of ferritics in a wide range of sectors.

Date
2007
Provider
ISSF
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The Mechanical Finishing of Decorative Stainless Steel Surfaces
Description

This resource outlines mechanical finishing methods that are appropriate for stainless steel fabrications, describing and illustrating current "best-practice" and emphasizing some of the differences between carbon steel and stainless steel practice. Frequently used finishing methods such as grinding, polishing, buffing and brushing are described. The use of hand tools such as abrasive belts and discs as well as powered equipment such as fixed and portable finishing tools are explained. A guide to best finishing practice is also given. Case studies demonstrating a stainless steel finish are presented, covering the fabrication and installation procedures. Also available on CDROM which includes 2 video presentations showing examples of the operations involved.

Date
2005
Provider
Euro Inox
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The Suitability and Use of Stainless Steel for Plumbing Applications
Description

This resource provides a synopsis of a research project carried out by the BSSA on the suitability of stainless steel tube and fitting products for internal building plumbing applications. The material, environmental, economic and aesthetic benefits of stainless steels in plumbing applications are outlined and the use of stainless steel plumbing in Scottish hospitals reviewed. European regulations are summarized, before a discussion on the market place perceptions of stainless steels and cost analysis is discussed. It is concluded that stainless steel is particularly suited to large-scale plumbing installations, such as hospitals, childrens and old peoples homes, prisons, schools and hotels, where health and safety are prime considerations.

Date
2003
Provider
BSSA
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What is Stainless Steel?
Description

This resource describes all grades of stainless steel and their main mechanical properties with reference to the chemical composition in each case.  Secondly, the different families (austenitic, ferritic, martenistic, duplex) and finishes are described with the basic % alloy composition.  Finally, for each family, the mechanical properties, weldability, strength and corrosion resistance are compared.

Date
-
Provider
Euro Inox
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Which Stainless Steel should be Specified for Exterior Applications?
Description

This resource is a brochure which provides guidelines for evaluating a project to determine which stainless steel grade, surface finish and design are most suitable to resist corrosion. Corrosion damage is unlikely to impact the metal structurally but bad specification can lead to staining which may be regarded as aesthetically unacceptable for the structure. The ‘Site and Design Evaluation System’ is divided into 5 sections:  ‘Environment’ discusses pollution levels, ‘Salt exposure’ discusses  the distance to coastal or trafficked areas, ‘Weather’ discusses the local climate, ‘Design’ discusses the element orientation, crevices and surface finish and ‘Maintenance’ discusses the cleaning schedule. Each section describes where the relevant information can be found and what specification is suitable to resist the different levels of corrosion attack. This brochure works with the IMOA software found in the resource ‘Stainless Steel Grade Selection Software’ which implements this selection criteria to produce a grade and surface finish by considering all 5 sections.

Date
2006
Provider
IMOA
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Wrapped in Stainless Steel - Sustainable Curtain Walls and Roofing
Description

Interest in sustainable design has grown significantly around the world. Consequently, material comparisons for exterior applications now frequently include aspects such as recycled content, durability, maintenance requirements and impact on energy and water consumption. When these analyses are done, stainless steel consistently garners high marks, particularly in structures designed for 30 or more years of service.

Date
August 2008
Provider
Other
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